14/Apr/2022

Skin ageing is a continuous time-dependent and multifactorial phenomenon of reduction in size and number of cells in the skin, and reduction in the rate of many organic functions in the skin. Many skin functions decline with age, such as cell replacement, response to an injury, barrier function of the skin, sensory perception of the skin, immune response of the skin and temperature regulation. In addition, the reduced production of sweat and reduced function of skin glands resulting in skin dryness.

The cutaneous stigmata of ageing may affect an individual’s mental wellbeing, body image and quality of life. Ageing, unfortunately, is a fact of life and the older population is increasing in number. Obviously, no one can remain young forever, but cosmetic innovations through scientific research are progressing very rapidly. Patients are able to significantly delay the visible ageing process by practising preventive skin care and taking advantage of many chemical treatments available for facial rejuvenation.

Elixir @ Hunter is a cosmetic and skin cancer clinic in Maitland, NSW. Visit our  skin rejuvenation page to learn more.

The various methods for skin rejuvenation are:

Cosmetics

Cosmetics are topical agents used to improve personal grooming, appearance and self-image.

The best cosmetic a person can wear for preservation of his or her youthful appearance is sunscreen. It can cause an apparent reversal of some signs of photoaging and keep the skin youthful looking.

Moisturisers reduce the loss of humidity from the surface of skin by deposition of an oil film, avoiding evaporation, and helps minimise the appearance of fine wrinkles, and maintain appropriate level of skin humidity. Fine wrinkles are more visible when skin is excessively dry.

Vitamin A based creams are used to rejuvenate the skin by creating peeling of the top layer of skin, triggering regeneration of the new skin cells.

Antioxidants like Vitamin C and Vitamin E creams work by reducing the number of sunburn cells which appear after exposure to UV radiation. Topical application of these cream decreases the redness and swelling, and number of sunburn cells.

Chemical peels

Chemical peeling involves the application of an acid to the skin to produce a controlled and predictable injury to the epidermis and variable portion of the dermis. Destruction of epidermis and, in some cases, superficial dermis produces oedema (swelling), and, hence, appreciable improvement in appearance. There is documented evidence that some of these substances and procedures can induce formation of new collagen with normal staining properties. There are few different types of chemicals available for chemical peeling.

A new era in dermatologic treatment began with the introduction of retinoids around 4 decades ago. Retinoids are Vitamin A based agents, and may be used orally or topically for a wide variety of skin disorders. Topically and in higher concentration than the ones used for the keratolytic effect, some retinoids may be used as a peeling agent with very good results.

Botulinum Toxin

Botulinum toxin is a sterile, vacuum dried purified form of botulinum toxin A, and is indicated for treatment of a few medical conditions including skin wrinkles. It temporarily blocks the connection between nerves and muscles responsible for certain facial wrinkles and is used for dynamic facial wrinkles including the glabellar furrow, horizontal forehead lines, horizontal neck lines and crow’s feet. Please visit our anti-wrinkle injections page to learn more.

Fillers

As part of the ageing, the face undergoes contraction or shrinking of facial fat pads and few areas of the facial bone. A variety of filling substances are available in the market to fill up the lost fat pads and bony progections., and some of the defects susceptible to improvement are furrows and wrinkles, depressed scars, and skin roughness. Each method is highly effective when used for its correct indications and by skilled physicians.

Visit our dermal fillers Maitland page to learn more.

Intense pulsed light

IPL is useful for the treatment of prominent capillaries and veins on the face, redness on face and neck, freckles, fine lines and wrinkles. Its multiple effects have made it an interesting modality for non ablative skin rejuvenation. Several studies have shown remarkable improvement of photoaged skin, and although the degree of improvement of fine lines may not be as impressive, IPL causes significant simultaneous improvement of other photoaging features, such as redness, prominent capillaries and veins and dyspigmentation or irregular pigmentation. In addition to its combined effect, it has a good safety profile, making it a suitable modality for photoaged skin of all types, and in treating large areas as chest and neck.

Fractional Laser resurfacing

The carbon dioxide laser was developed in the 1960s for skin and eye procedures. The 10,600 nm emission wavelength is strongly absorbed by water, which is the main constituent in the tissues.

The principle of ‘selective thermolysis’ is applied to the development of lasers to be used for resurfacing. This theory states that selective heating and damage of a target chromophore and tissue is achieved when an appropriate wavelength is delivered to an absorbing chromophore.

Resurfacing Co2 lasers produce excellent results for fine and deep rhytides, surgical scars, acne scars and the treatment of photodamaged skin with a minimal risk of long term side effects. Co2 laser wounds produce a more intense inflammatory response, and induce increased neocollagenesis compared to short term pulsed laser wounds for the same depth of tissue destruction. Clinically, better cosmetic outcomes are achieved for moderate to severe wrinkles, photodamage and acne scarring with the Co2 laser.

In Fractional Co2 laser, the depth and area of the resurfacing can be calculated and controlled in a much better way, leading to a better controlled inflammation and a more predictive outcome with better formation of collagen and improved appearance of skin. A better understanding of wound healing from a biochemical and molecular perspective together with fundamental knowledge of laser-tissue interactions has led to a more scientific approach to the development and analysis of all skin rejuvenation procedures.

Radiofrequency Microneedling

Radiofrequency microneedling works by selectively delivering radiofrequency energy with microneedline to create a deep remodelling of the skin. The treatment triggers formation of collagen in deeper layers of skin to improve skin tightening. It is a relatively non-invasive treatment to deliver heat to the target tissues while the outer layer of the skin remains relatively intact. By formation of new collage, this treatment improves textural irregularities such as fine lines, atrophic scar, skin wrinkling and sagging.

Radiofrequency Microneedling

Surgical procedures

There are many surgical procedures available for skin rejuvenation. Dermabrasion and Dermaplaning are procedures used to remove the top layer of the skin and this improves the skin’s contour as new collagen and epidermis replace the abraded skin. The new skin generally has a smoother appearance. It is indicated for fine wrinkles, scar correction and perioral wrinkles.

Summary

The cosmetic ageing changes of the skin are not a direct threat to the physical well-being of the patient, but their psychological impact, particularly in regard to self-perception, self-esteem, and quality of life, can be significant. Successful ageing is characterised by good mental health and adaptive psychosocial functioning, resulting in life satisfaction. Skin rejuvenation is a medical way to reverse the visible signs of ageing in the skin, and to delay the appearance of these signs of ageing.

Choosing the ideal skin rejuvenation procedure depends on several factors, like relative efficacy for a given medical indication, length of recovery period, expertise of the clinician, possible adverse effects, risks and complications, and the relative cost of these procedures.

Elixir @ Hunter skin cancer clinic provides comprehensive skin cancer checkup, skin cancer treatment and various forms of skin rejuvenation procedures. To discuss what skin rejuvenation procedures are good for your skin and to discuss more about your skin, please call our friendly staff on 02 40674119 to book a cosmetic consultation.


30/Mar/2022

Anti-wrinkle injections are one of the most common cosmetic procedures in the world. The short term and the long term results can be incredible.

Anti-wrinkle botulinum toxin injections not only help you look better, they are also like a prophylactic medication for ageing.

Many people begin having their first treatments in their late twenties or early thirties. By starting at this age, you can stop the first lines from appearing, and thus making the treatment and outcome more effective.

Some people who could benefit from these treatments remain hesitant about these cosmetic procedures. They want to know whether anti-wrinkle injections are safe or not.

Anti-wrinkle injections are one of the safest procedures available. And the safety improves significantly if the injections are done by professionals who have a thorough knowledge of facial anatomy and clinical skills of providing the skin treatment for years, and who provide treatment with care.

The Chemistry and Mechanism of Action

Anti-wrinkle Botulinum toxin injection is made by the bacteria Clostridium Botulinum, an anaerobic bacteria found naturally in the soil. The botulinum protein is purified for clinical and cosmetic use. An anti-wrinkle injection protein which works by blocking the signals going from nerves to the muscles. The reduced tone of the muscles creates the immediate desired cosmetic improvement of the face with minimal or no wrinkles. The effect of anti-wrinkle injections is temporary and usually wears off in 3-4 months.

With long term use of anti-wrinkle injections, the effect of botulinum toxin injections can last longer. Apart from the long lasting effect, the reduction in excessive crumpling of the skin by reduced tone of the associated muscles leads to improvement in condition of the skin and helps in delaying the formation of deeper wrinkles.

Safe medical uses of Botulinum Toxin

Anti-wrinkle botulinum toxin injections are medically licensed for use in several medical problems like

  1. cerebral palsy and associated limb spasms
  2. Blepharospasm or uncontrollable twitching or spasms of eye muscles
  3. Migraine
  4. Overactive bladder
  5. Involuntary muscle contractions in limbs.
  6. Frown lines

As this medication is used for so many important medical conditions, patients seeking cosmetic treatment with botulinum toxin injection can feel confident that it has been tested thoroughly for safety and efficacy.

The botulinum toxin injection was initially approved for frown line wrinkles, but over the past 20 years, the use has been extended to treat various facial wrinkles.

The possible complications and their management with anti-wrinkle botulinum toxin injections

  1. Eyebrow ptosis or drooping – This is often due to injecting in the wrong muscle group and is rare with an experienced injector. It usually improves naturally within 2-3 months.
  2. Eyelid ptosis or drooping – This also happens due to injecting in the wrong muscle group and is rare with an experienced injector. It can improve naturally within 4-6 weeks or some eye drops can be used until resolution.
  3. Spock Eyebrows – This is often a result of too few injection units on the outer side, and can be fixed easily by giving some topup units.
  4. Forehead heaviness – This is often a result of injecting too low in the forehead and is rare with a trusted professional injector.
  5. Swelling and bruising – This is a rare complication, and the chances of having this with our professional injectors are very minimal.
  6. Headache and flu like symptoms – These are very rare and usually short lasting only.

Elixir @ Hunter is a trusted doctor led skin cancer and cosmetic clinic, we ensure you get a personalised approach for your cosmetic treatment at an affordable price.

When you choose an experienced cosmetic doctor or nurse to perform your treatment, you can expect to get better results.

At Elixir @ Hunter Skin Cancer Clinic, we ensure we provide you with the right number of units, and combining this with the expertise of facial anatomy of our doctors and nurses, means there is minimal chance of complications.


16/Feb/2022

Melanoma is the third commonest invasive malignancy in Australia after breast and prostate cancer. Checking your skin can help you find melanoma early when it is highly treatable. Consult your doctor if you ever think you have a concerning skin lesion. Examine your body for early signs of melanoma. Melanoma can affect you anywhere on your skin – from your scalp, hands to the bottom of your feet. Even if the area gets only a little sun, it is possible for melanoma to develop there. The highest reported rates of cutaneous melanoma in the world are in Australia and New Zealand. Melanoma can occur in adults of any age but is very rare in children.

Elixir @ Hunter is a purpose-built skin cancer clinic Maitland. Book your consultation today!

The main risk factors for developing the most common type of melanoma (superficial spreading melanoma) include:

  • Increasing age
  • Past history of Melanoma
  • Past history of Non Melanoma skin cancers
  • Many moles
  • Multiple (>5) abnormal moles (histologically dysplastic moles)
  • A strong family history of melanoma with 2 or more first-degree relatives affected
  • White/fair skin that burns easily
Invasive Melanoma
Invasive Melanoma

 

 

 

 

 

 

Melanoma-in-situ arising in a Mole
Melanoma-in-situ arising in a Mole

 

 

 

 

 

 

How to check your own skin?

1. A full-length mirror

Looking into a full-length mirror helps check your back and sides.

2. Underarms, forearms, and palms

Bend your elbows and look carefully at your forearms, underarms, and your palms.

3. Legs, toes and soles of your feet

Look at the backs of your legs, feet, the spaces between your toes, and the soles of your feet.

4. A hand mirror can help you check your neck, scalp, back and buttocks

A small mirror can be handy to check your own back, buttocks and the back of your neck.

The ‘ABCDE’ approach to recognizing an early melanoma

Remember the ABCDE when looking at each of your skin lesions.

A – Asymmetry

Melanomas are often neither circular nor oval in shape. If you draw a line through the middle of the lesion, the two halves do not match. This irregular shape is described as asymmetry.

B – Border

Melanoma borders tend to be uneven and may have scalloped or notched edges. Sometimes the edge of a melanoma is abrupt next to normal skin. At other times, the melanoma may merge into skin. These two border features can happen in different parts of the same melanoma.

C – Colour

Multiple colours are a warning sign. While benign moles are usually a single shade of brown, a melanoma may have different shades of brown, tan or black. As it grows, the colours red, white, or even blue may also appear. The more colours in the skin lesion, the more concerning it is.

D – Diameter

It is a warning sign if a skin lesion is 6 mm in diameter or greater. Most harmless skin lesions are quite small.

E – Evolution

Has your skin lesion changed over several months? This is a concerning feature. Harmless skin lesions often remain the same year after year. Inflamed skin lesions often change over days or weeks rather than over months.

Doctors generally do not use the ABCDE system

They usually examine your skin lesions with a dermoscope. This is an instrument with magnification and a light source that reduces surface reflection. The doctor can detect the structure of the skin lesion under the surface, and use their knowledge and clinical skills to diagnose skin lesions suspicious for melanoma. The suspicious skin lesion will need removal or an excisional biopsy. Alternatively, the dermoscope may assist your doctor to determine the skin lesion is not concerning. The ABCDE system is just a guide, and it is not foolproof. A melanoma can be smaller than 5 mm in diameter. A melanoma can be circular and only have one colour.

Dysplatic Naevi or Moles

A dysplastic melanocytic nevus is a mole with some structural abnormality. These dysplastic nevi are not skin cancers but patients with multiple dysplastic naevi are at a significant risk of developing melanoma.

Dysplastic moles look like very dark or black moles. They often have a strange irregular shape, are usually smooth to touch, and may rise gently off the skin. They are seen in people of every age. Other features may be ill defined or blurred borders, Irregular margin resulting in an unusual shape, varying shades of colour (mostly pink, tan, brown, black)

Dysplastic naevus syndrome is a condition where a patient has 5 or more dysplastic melanocytic naevi. These people are at substantial risk of developing a melanoma.

Patients with Dysplastic Naevus syndrome are at high risk of melanoma and so, It is therefore essential that extreme measures are taken to avoid sun damage. Of those people with dysplastic nevi who later develop melanoma, more grow from normal looking skin than from existing Dysplastic moles. As such, simply removing lots of dysplastic moles is not the answer. These patients need regular and careful skin checks to check for any changes. During skin checks, the doctor can take photographs of moles (with or without the dermatoscope) and any suspicious dysplastic moles and can then be followed up for any changes. The close-up photographs with dermatoscopic views should be repeated from time to time, so change can be detected early and its significance determined. Follow up is the key to managing dysplastic moles. If in doubt, a suspicious or changing atypical nevus should be removed for an excision biopsy. Partial biopsy is best avoided, as the test may miss a small focus of melanoma. People diagnosed with atypical naevi should be taught how to self examine their skin for new skin lesions and for changes to existing moles that may indicate the development of melanoma. People with numerous moles should have a thorough full body skin check 6-12 monthly.


22/Nov/2021

Skin cancer is the most common cancer in the world, but unlike other cancers, you can see it, so you can do something about it.

Learning about how to detect early signs of skin cancer can make a lot of difference in reducing a patient’s morbidity and mortality from the skin cancers. When caught and treated early, skin cancers are highly curable. And in the early stages of skin cancer development, you’re the one with the best chance to see changes. That’s why we recommend that you examine your skin head-to-toe every 3-4 months. It’s a simple but powerful way to look at yourself with a new focus that can save you.

The risk of skin cancers depends on a number of factors including inheritance, Fitzpatrick skin type, history of unprotected sun exposure in the first 20 years of life, your occupation and hobbies.

Early skin cancer detection

Elderly patients: Some elderly patients who spent their childhood and earning age outdoors when there was no awareness of sun damage, usually get a lot of skin cancers and it is advised  to have their skin checked professionally every 3-4 monthly and self checkup every month.

Past history: Patients with a past history of melanoma or dysplastic nevus syndrome are recommended to have a professional skin checkup every 6 months and self checkup every 1-2 months.

General people: For the rest of the patients, it’s okay to have a skin checkup once a year or once every 2 years provided they do their own checkup every 3-4 months.

The common types of skin cancers include Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC), Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) and Melanoma.

Elixir @ Hunter is a skin cancer clinic in Maitland, NSW. Book your consultation today!

How to do your own skin checkup

It’s also important to remember that technology can be a powerful aid when checking your skin. If you can have a loved one take photos of suspicious spots, it can help your physician track any changes when you head in for your skin exam.

If you see something NEW, CHANGING or UNUSUAL, get it checked with a skin cancer doctor right away. It could be skin cancer. Regarding the changing skin lesions, if you see a change appearing overnight or in the last couple of days, it is usually inflammatory and should subside within a week. In case the changes continue over 2-3 weeks, it’s better to consult a skin cancer doctor.

This includes:

  • A growth that increases in size and appears pearly, transparent, tan, brown, black, or multicoloured.
  • A mole, birthmark or brown spot that increases in size, thickness, changes colour or texture, or is bigger than a pencil eraser.
  • A spot or sore that continues to itch, hurt, crust, scab or bleed.
  • An open sore that does not heal within three weeks.
  • Look for anything new, changing or unusual on both sun-exposed and sun-protected areas of the body. Melanomas commonly appear on the legs of women, and the number one place they develop on men is the trunk. Keep in mind, though, that melanomas can arise anywhere on the skin, even in areas where the sun doesn’t shine.
  • Look for ABCDE signs of melanoma – ABCDE stands for asymmetry, border, colour, diameter and evolving. These are the characteristics of skin damage that doctors look for when diagnosing and classifying melanomas.

A is for Asymmetry. Most melanomas are asymmetrical. If you draw a line through the middle of the lesion, the two halves don’t match, so it looks different from a round to oval and symmetrical common mole.

B is for Border. Melanoma borders tend to be uneven and may have scalloped or notched edges, while common moles tend to have smoother, more even borders.

C is for Colour. Multiple colours are a warning sign. While benign moles are usually a single shade of brown, a melanoma may have different shades of brown, tan or black. As it grows, the colours red, white or blue may also appear.

D is for Diameter or Dark. While it’s ideal to detect a melanoma when it is small, it’s a warning sign if a lesion is the size of a pencil eraser (about 6 mm, or ¼ inch in diameter) or larger. Rare, there are amelanotic melanomas which are skin coloured or very light or colorless.

E is for Evolving. Any change in size, shape, colour or elevation of a spot on your skin, or any new symptom in it, such as bleeding, itching or crusting, may be a warning sign of melanoma.

Steps to examine yourself in front of a mirror.

  1. Examine your face Especially your nose, lips, mouth and ears — front and back.
  2. Inspect your scalp Thoroughly inspect your scalp, using a blow-dryer and mirror to expose each section to view. Get a friend or family member to help, if you can.
  3. Check your upper limbs Palms and backs, between the fingers and under the fingernails. Continue up the wrists to examine both the front and back of your forearms. Check the elbows and scan all sides of your upper arms.
  4. Inspect your torso Next, focus on the neck, chest and torso. Lift the breasts to view the undersides
  5. Scan your back With your back to the full-length mirror, use the hand mirror to inspect the back of your neck, shoulders, upper back. Scan your lower back, buttocks and backs of both legs
  6. Inspect your legs Sit down; prop each leg in turn on the other stool or chair. Use the hand mirror to examine the genitals. Check the front and sides of both legs, thigh to shin. Then, finish with ankles and feet, including soles, toes and nails.

Basal Cell Carcinoma or BCC

BCC or Basal Cell Carcinoma is the most common form of skin cancer. BCC almost always never spreads beyond the original tumour site, and the cure rate after a surgical excision is above 95 percent in most body areas.

So, is this form of cancer even something to worry about?

Even though BCCs are locally invasive and don’t spread to lymph nodes or blood stream usually, there can be some aggressive forms of BCCs which rarely can metastasise. In addition, BCCs in areas like lips, ears, nose and eyelids can create a lot of tissue destruction if not removed early. As they are very slow growing, patients take them very casually sometimes and by the time they start to bleed and ulcerate, they can be hard to remove and usually need a skin graft or a skin flap repair in the areas of nose, ears and eyelids. BCCs over the lower part of the nose or in the ears can go deeper into the cartilage if left unattended, making surgery difficult. Once you’ve been diagnosed with a BCC, it’s very likely that you will develop more over the years, leading to continuous treatment and possibly even disfiguration.

Squamous Cell Carcinoma or SCC

SCC or Squamous Cell Carcinomas are the second commonest type of skin cancers. They can be quite aggressive at times. While the majority of SCCs can be successfully treated, if left to grow, this common skin cancer can become very invasive, can penetrate deeper layers of skin and spread to surrounding lymph nodes and to other parts of the body.

Squamous Cell Carcinoma or SCC

The pre-cancerous lesions for SCCs (Actinic Keratosis or Bowen’s disease) can grow over a few years before they turn into invasive Squamous cell carcinoma.

Actinic keratosis is the most common precancerous lesion that forms on skin damaged by chronic exposure to ultraviolet rays from the sun and/or indoor tanning. Actinic keratosis results from long-term exposure to ultraviolet radiation. Actinic keratosis often appears as small dry, scaly or crusty patches of skin. They may be red, light or dark tan, white, pink, flesh-toned or a combination of colours and are sometimes raised. Because of their rough texture, actinic keratoses are often easier to feel than see. The lesions frequently arise on sun-exposed areas of the face, lips, ears, scalp, shoulders, neck and the back of the hands and forearms.

Actinic keratosis that turns cancerous almost always turns into Squamous Cell Carcinoma, the second most common type of skin cancer. Untreated SCCs can become invasive, and even life-threatening.

Catching and treating the actinic keratosis before it becomes an SCC can make a huge difference in your treatment experience. You want to get them early, before they go invasive, mostly to prevent possible invasion into the skin and internal organs. This is especially important in the head and neck region, as those cancers can be more aggressive in these areas. You’re also going to get less scarring than if you waited to remove a growth until it was cancerous.

Only about 10 percent of actinic keratoses will eventually become cancerous, but the majority of SCCs do begin as actinic keratosis. Unfortunately, there’s no way to tell which actinic keratosis will become dangerous, so monitoring and treating any that crop up is the only way to be sure.

What do actinic keratosis look like?

They vary widely. They could be thick, red, scaly patches or they could be red bumps with a tan crust or could present with a raised little horn-shaped part, called a cutaneous horn. Pay attention to anything that keeps coming back or doesn’t heal, just as you would while examining your skin for signs of fully formed skin cancers. I tell my patients that if they have any concerning areas like that, to call the clinic and we will see them as soon as possible. That way we can treat them early and prevent formation of squamous cell carcinoma

Actinic keratosis can be treated easily with simple procedures like cryotherapy or with some cancer burning creams, laser ablation or with curettage and desiccation.

Actinic keratosis on lips is called Actinic Cheilitis. You might think you have severely chapped lips, but that could be a warning sign of actinic cheilitis. This precancerous condition typically appears on the lower lip as scaly patches or roughness. Left untreated, it can evolve into a Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip which can be very aggressive.

The SCCs can also present as a wart-like growth or a cutaneous horn. You might think you’ve developed a wart, but these funnel-shaped growths that look like a tiny horn on the skin may have a SCC in the base.

A superficial form of SCC is called Bowen’s disease or Squamous Cell Carcinoma – in – situ. You might think you have a patch of dry skin. But if the patch doesn’t heal, looks scaly, red or crusty and starts spreading outward, it could be a superficial type of SCC called SCC in situ. At this stage, it is not dangerous and the treatment is easy, but if left untreated, it can progress and turn into an invasive SCC which will need a full excision and will leave a much bigger scar.

Melanoma

Invasive Melanoma
Invasive Melanoma

 

 

 

 

 

 

Melanoma-in-situ arising in a Mole
Melanoma-in-situ arising in a Mole

 

 

 

 

 

 

It can be difficult to comprehend just how big a difference early detection makes with melanoma, the most dangerous form of skin cancer. Treating a Melanoma early rather than after it is allowed to progress could be lifesaving.

To fully comprehend the significance of timing, it can be helpful to understand exactly what happens to a melanoma when it advances to a later stage, and what it means when a melanoma spreads beyond the original tumour site.

Every melanoma has the potential to become deadly, but the difference between a melanoma-in-situ and one that has begun to metastasise cannot be overstated. There is a drastic change in the survival rate for the various stages of melanoma, highlighting the importance of detecting and treating melanomas before they have a chance to progress. It’s impossible to predict exactly how fast a melanoma will move from stage to stage, so you should be taking action as soon as possible.

There are different types of melanoma

  • Superficial spreading melanoma This is the most common type of melanoma making up about 50% of all melanomas diagnosed. This melanoma usually appears as a dark spot with irregular borders that spreads across the skin.
  • Nodular melanoma Nodular is one of the most rapidly growing types of melanoma. It appears as a raised lump or ‘nodule’ and can be brown, black, pink or red in colouring, or have no colour at all. About 15% of all melanomas are nodular.
  • Lentigo maligna melanoma Lentigo maligna melanomas begin as large freckles. They are commonly found in older people, often in areas that have received a lot of sun exposure such as the face, head, neck and upper body. This type of melanoma makes up 10% of all melanomas.
  • Acral lentiginous melanoma Acral is a rare type of melanoma that tends to grow on the palms of hands, soles of the feet or under the nails. It accounts for about 3% of all melanomas.
  • Other, less common types of melanoma include desmoplastic and naevoid melanoma. Mucosal melanomas can be found in tissues in the respiratory, digestive, and reproductive tracts. Uveal (ocular) melanomas develop in the eye.

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